Element Al

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Ordnungszahl: Symbol: Al. Name (dt./engl.): Aluminium (offizieller Name nach IUPAC). Gruppe: Borgruppe. IUPAC-Gruppe: 13 (alte Nomenklatur: Gruppe III. Aluminium (im angloamerikanischen Sprachraum vielfach auch Aluminum) ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Al und der Ordnungszahl Das Periodensystem der Elemente kurz, prägnat, übersichtlich. Die wichtigsten Infos 13, Aluminium (Al). lat. alumen = Alaunstein. Das Element Aluminium. (AlCl3 Die + 3 schmelzelektrolytische K Al + 3 KCl; hat wohl schon H. C. Das Element Aluminium (nicht essentiell für den Menschen) ist im Kontakt mit. meinblog-theme.co: Kostenlose Lieferung und Rückgabe. Element Element Al Polyester Brieftasche in Element - Mit Reißverschluss.

Element Al

AWS Elemental Server. Bereiten Sie dateibasierte Videos vor Ort zur On-​Demand-Verteilung auf. Vertrieb kontaktieren · Live-. Ordnungszahl: Symbol: Al. Name (dt./engl.): Aluminium (offizieller Name nach IUPAC). Gruppe: Borgruppe. IUPAC-Gruppe: 13 (alte Nomenklatur: Gruppe III. Für diese Frage "chemisches Element, AL" kennen wir vom Wort-Suchen-Team aktuell nur eine denkbare Lösung (Aluminium). Ist das die richtige? Wenn ja. Aluminium wird check this out seines hohen Reflexionsgrades als Spiegelbeschichtung von More info, unter anderem in ScannernKraftfahrzeug- Scheinwerfern und Spiegelreflexkameras aber auch in this web page Infrarotmesstechnik eingesetzt. Die Ionen schädigen insbesondere das Wurzelwachstum der Feinwurzeln. Tonnen produziert. Periodensystem der Elemente. Weiterverbreitung, Bearbeitung und kommerzielle Nutzung sind gestattet. Zahlreiche Enzyme und signalübertragende Proteine sind betroffen; die Folgen der Vergiftung sind noch nicht vollständig bekannt. In der Verpackungsindustrie wird Aluminium zu Getränke- und Konservendosen sowie zu Aluminiumfolie verarbeitet. Aluminiumlegierungen sind Legierungendie überwiegend aus Aluminium bestehen. Dies bildet aber sofort eine dünne, für Luft und Wasser undurchlässige Schicht Passivierung und schützt so know, Liverscoer apologise Aluminium vor Korrosion. Korund hat mit fast 53 Prozent den höchsten Aluminiumanteil einer Verbindung. Beim Kontaktieren Element Al Druck ist Aluminium problematisch, da es zum Kriechen neigt. Während Bier in Aluminiumfässern transportiert wird, hat sich für den Weintransport der Werkstoff Aluminium nicht durchgesetzt. Während viele dateibasierte Transcodier-Workloads in die Cloud migriert werden, erfordern einige Workflows eine dateibasierte Enkodierung vor Ort, wie etwa Video-Workflows, die auf einem netzwerkgebundenen Speicher basieren. Aluminium ist damit ein natürlicher Bestandteil des menschlichen Körpers.

Georg Thieme Verlag, abgerufen am 12 juin April, S. Day et al. Methods Phys. B , vol. Kaehny , A. Hegg et A. Valkonen et A. Total Environ. R, Hoet P.

Neurotoxicology 16, Clin Sci 92, A et Cloete T. E , Nanotechnology and water treatment: applications and emerging opportunities.

Critical reviews in microbiology , 34 1 , R, Santaroni P. I, Oliveira J. A et Gomes M. S , Leaching of aluminium from cooking pans and food containers.

Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical , , Effect of citrid and ascorbic acids on aluminium tissue levels in rabbits , Fundam.

Roxicology , 1l. F, Cabrera C, Lorenzo M. C , Aluminium content of drinking waters, fruit juices and soft drinks: contribution to dietary intake , Science of the Total Environment , 3 , Research Communication in Molecular Pathology and Pharmncology 8.

Wien 29 September, S. X, Hu W. J, Zhang N. N, Lin X. Y, Zhang J. H et Zheng H. Dans International Review of Cytology. Band , , S.

With heavier halides, the coordination numbers are lower. The other trihalides are dimeric or polymeric with tetrahedral four-coordinate aluminium centers.

Aluminium trichloride AlCl 3 has a layered polymeric structure below its melting point of At higher temperatures those increasingly dissociate into trigonal planar AlCl 3 monomers similar to the structure of BCl 3.

Aluminium tribromide and aluminium triiodide form Al 2 X 6 dimers in all three phases and hence do not show such significant changes of properties upon phase change.

The aluminium trihalides form many addition compounds or complexes; their Lewis acidic nature makes them useful as catalysts for the Friedel—Crafts reactions.

Aluminium trichloride has major industrial uses involving this reaction, such as in the manufacture of anthraquinones and styrene ; it is also often used as the precursor for many other aluminium compounds and as a reagent for converting nonmetal fluorides into the corresponding chlorides a transhalogenation reaction.

Aluminium forms one stable oxide with the chemical formula Al 2 O 3 , commonly called alumina. Sapphire and ruby are impure corundum contaminated with trace amounts of other metals.

There are three main trihydroxides: bayerite , gibbsite , and nordstrandite , which differ in their crystalline structure polymorphs.

Many other intermediate and related structures are also known. Heating the hydroxides leads to formation of corundum. These materials are of central importance to the production of aluminium and are themselves extremely useful.

The only stable chalcogenides under normal conditions are aluminium sulfide Al 2 S 3 , selenide Al 2 Se 3 , and telluride Al 2 Te 3.

They are all III-V semiconductors isoelectronic to silicon and germanium , all of which but AlN have the zinc blende structure.

All four can be made by high-temperature and possibly high-pressure direct reaction of their component elements.

AlF, AlCl, AlBr, and AlI exist in the gaseous phase when the respective trihalide is heated with aluminium, and at cryogenic temperatures.

Their instability in the condensed phase is due to their ready disproportionation to aluminium and the respective trihalide: the reverse reaction is favored at high temperature although even then they are still short-lived , explaining why AlF 3 is more volatile when heated in the presence of aluminium metal, as is aluminium metal when heated in the presence of AlCl 3.

Also of theoretical interest but only of fleeting existence are Al 2 O and Al 2 S. Such materials quickly disproportionate to the starting materials.

Very simple Al II compounds are invoked or observed in the reactions of Al metal with oxidants. For example, aluminium monoxide , AlO, has been detected in the gas phase after explosion [42] and in stellar absorption spectra.

A variety of compounds of empirical formula AlR 3 and AlR 1. They catch fire spontaneously in air and react with water, thus necessitating precautions when handling them.

They often form dimers, unlike their boron analogues, but this tendency diminishes for branched-chain alkyls e. Pr i , Bu i , Me 3 CCH 2 ; for example, triisobutylaluminium exists as an equilibrium mixture of the monomer and dimer.

They are hard acids and react readily with ligands, forming adducts. In industry, they are mostly used in alkene insertion reactions, as discovered by Karl Ziegler , most importantly in "growth reactions" that form long-chain unbranched primary alkenes and alcohols, and in the low-pressure polymerization of ethene and propene.

There are also some heterocyclic and cluster organoaluminium compounds involving Al—N bonds. The industrially most important aluminium hydride is lithium aluminium hydride LiAlH 4 , which is used in as a reducing agent in organic chemistry.

It can be produced from lithium hydride and aluminium trichloride. It is a polymer with the formula AlH 3 n , in contrast to the corresponding boron hydride that is a dimer with the formula BH 3 2.

Aluminium's per-particle abundance in the Solar System is 3. It is created almost entirely after fusion of carbon in massive stars that will later become Type II supernovae : this fusion creates 26 Mg, which, upon capturing free protons and neutrons becomes aluminium.

Some smaller quantities of 27 Al are created in hydrogen burning shells of evolved stars, where 26 Mg can capture free protons.

However, the trace quantities of 26 Al that do exist are the most common gamma ray emitter in the interstellar gas.

Overall, the Earth is about 1. Because of its strong affinity for oxygen, aluminium is almost never found in the elemental state; instead it is found in oxides or silicates.

Feldspars , the most common group of minerals in the Earth's crust, are aluminosilicates. Aluminium also occurs in the minerals beryl , cryolite , garnet , spinel , and turquoise.

Although aluminium is a common and widespread element, not all aluminium minerals are economically viable sources of the metal.

Almost all metallic aluminium is produced from the ore bauxite AlO x OH 3—2 x. Bauxite occurs as a weathering product of low iron and silica bedrock in tropical climatic conditions.

The history of aluminium has been shaped by usage of alum. The first written record of alum, made by Greek historian Herodotus , dates back to the 5th century BCE.

The nature of alum remained unknown. Around , Swiss physician Paracelsus suggested alum was a salt of an earth of alum. Attempts to produce aluminium metal date back to He reacted anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium amalgam , yielding a lump of metal looking similar to tin.

As Wöhler's method could not yield great quantities of aluminium, the metal remained rare; its cost exceeded that of gold.

Austrian chemist Carl Joseph Bayer discovered a way of purifying bauxite to yield alumina, now known as the Bayer process , in Prices of aluminium dropped and aluminium became widely used in jewelry, everyday items, eyeglass frames, optical instruments, tableware, and foil in the s and early 20th century.

Aluminium's ability to form hard yet light alloys with other metals provided the metal many uses at the time.

By the midth century, aluminium had become a part of everyday life and an essential component of housewares. Throughout the 20th century, the production of aluminium rose rapidly: while the world production of aluminium in was 6, metric tons, the annual production first exceeded , metric tons in ; 1,, tons in ; 10,, tons in However, the need to exploit lower-grade poorer quality deposits and the use of fast increasing input costs above all, energy increased the net cost of aluminium; [90] the real price began to grow in the s with the rise of energy cost.

Aluminium is named after alumina, or aluminium oxide in modern nomenclature. The word "alumina" comes from "alum", the mineral from which it was collected.

The word "alum" comes from alumen , a Latin word meaning "bitter salt". British chemist Humphry Davy , who performed a number of experiments aimed to isolate the metal, is credited as the person who named the element.

In , he suggested the metal be named alumium in an article on his electrochemical research which was published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

The -ium suffix followed the precedent set in other newly discovered elements of the time: potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, and strontium all of which Davy isolated himself.

Nevertheless, element names ending in -um were known at the time, for example, platinum known to Europeans since the 16th century , molybdenum discovered in , and tantalum discovered in The -um suffix is consistent with the universal spelling alumina for the oxide as opposed to aluminia ; compare to lanthana , the oxide of lanthanum , and magnesia , ceria , and thoria , the oxides of magnesium , cerium , and thorium , respectively.

In , British scientist Thomas Young [] wrote an anonymous review of Davy's book, in which he objected to aluminum and proposed the name aluminium : "for so we shall take the liberty of writing the word, in preference to aluminum, which has a less classical sound.

It was subsequently suggested this was a typo rather than intended. Aluminium production is highly energy-consuming, and so the producers tend to locate smelters in places where electric power is both plentiful and inexpensive.

In , China was the top producer of aluminium with a world share of fifty-five percent; the next largest producing countries were Russia, Canada, India, and the United Arab Emirates.

According to the International Resource Panel 's Metal Stocks in Society report , the global per capita stock of aluminium in use in society i.

Bauxite is converted to aluminium oxide by the Bayer process. Bauxite is blended for uniform composition and then is ground.

The resulting slurry is mixed with a hot solution of sodium hydroxide ; the mixture is then treated in a digester vessel at a pressure well above atmospheric, dissolving the aluminium hydroxide in bauxite while converting impurities into relatively insoluble compounds: [].

After this reaction, the slurry is at a temperature above its atmospheric boiling point. It is cooled by removing steam as pressure is reduced.

The bauxite residue is separated from the solution and discarded. After about half of aluminium has precipitated, the mixture is sent to classifiers.

Small crystals of aluminium hydroxide are collected to serve as seeding agents; coarse particles are converted to aluminium oxide by heating; excess solution is removed by evaporation, if needed purified, and recycled.

The liquid aluminium metal sinks to the bottom of the solution and is tapped off, and usually cast into large blocks called aluminium billets for further processing.

Anodes of the electrolysis cell are made of carbon—the most resistant material against fluoride corrosion—and either bake at the process or are prebaked.

The former, also called Söderberg anodes, are less power-efficient and fumes released during baking are costly to collect, which is why they are being replaced by prebaked anodes even though they save the power, energy, and labor to prebake the cathodes.

Carbon for anodes should be preferably pure so that neither aluminium nor the electrolyte is contaminated with ash. Despite carbon's resistivity against corrosion, it is still consumed at a rate of 0.

Cathodes are made of anthracite ; high purity for them is not required because impurities leach only very slowly. Cathode is consumed at a rate of 0.

A cell is usually a terminated after 2—6 years following a failure of the cathode. Further purification can be done by the Hoopes process.

This process involves the electrolysis of molten aluminium with a sodium, barium, and aluminium fluoride electrolyte.

The resulting aluminium has a purity of Recovery of the metal through recycling has become an important task of the aluminium industry.

Recycling was a low-profile activity until the late s, when the growing use of aluminium beverage cans brought it to public awareness.

White dross from primary aluminium production and from secondary recycling operations still contains useful quantities of aluminium that can be extracted industrially.

The process produces aluminium billets, together with a highly complex waste material. This waste is difficult to manage. It reacts with water, releasing a mixture of gases including, among others, hydrogen , acetylene , and ammonia , which spontaneously ignites on contact with air; [] contact with damp air results in the release of copious quantities of ammonia gas.

Despite these difficulties, the waste is used as a filler in asphalt and concrete. Aluminium is the most widely used non-ferrous metal.

Aluminium is almost always alloyed, which markedly improves its mechanical properties, especially when tempered.

The major uses for aluminium metal are in: []. Several sulfates of aluminium have industrial and commercial application.

Aluminium sulfate in its hydrate form is produced on the annual scale of several millions of metric tons. Despite its widespread occurrence in the Earth's crust, aluminium has no known function in biology.

In most people, aluminium is not as toxic as heavy metals. Aluminium, although rarely, can cause vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia , erythropoietin -resistant microcytic anemia , and central nervous system alterations.

People with kidney insufficiency are especially at a risk. During the Camelford water pollution incident people in Camelford had their drinking water contaminated with aluminium sulfate for several weeks.

A final report into the incident in concluded it was unlikely that this had caused long-term health problems. Aluminium has been suspected of being a possible cause of Alzheimer's disease , [] but research into this for over 40 years has found, as of [update] , no good evidence of causal effect.

Aluminium increases estrogen -related gene expression in human breast cancer cells cultured in the laboratory. Exposure to powdered aluminium or aluminium welding fumes can cause pulmonary fibrosis.

Food is the main source of aluminium. Drinking water contains more aluminium than solid food; [] however, aluminium in food may be absorbed more than aluminium from water.

Consumption of antacids , antiperspirants , vaccines , and cosmetics provide possible routes of exposure.

In case of suspected sudden intake of a large amount of aluminium, the only treatment is deferoxamine mesylate which may be given to help eliminate aluminium from the body by chelation.

High levels of aluminium occur near mining sites; small amounts of aluminium are released to the environment at the coal-fired power plants or incinerators.

Acidic precipitation is the main natural factor to mobilize aluminium from natural sources [] and the main reason for the environmental effects of aluminium; [] however, the main factor of presence of aluminium in salt and freshwater are the industrial processes that also release aluminium into air.

Aluminium is primary among the factors that reduce plant growth on acidic soils. Sorghum is believed to have the same tolerance mechanism.

Aluminium production possesses its own challenges to the environment on each step of the production process. The major challenge is the greenhouse gas emissions.

The most potent of these gases are perfluorocarbons from the smelting process. A Spanish scientific report from claimed that the fungus Geotrichum candidum consumes the aluminium in compact discs.

Better documented, the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungus Cladosporium resinae are commonly detected in aircraft fuel tanks that use kerosene -based fuels not avgas , and laboratory cultures can degrade aluminium.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Isotopes of aluminium.

Main article: Compounds of aluminium. See also: Aluminium I. Main article: Organoaluminium compound. See also: List of countries by bauxite production.

Main article: History of aluminium. Trusted human-machine collaboration Build a trusted relationship with AI to ensure adoption and effectiveness.

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Element Al Video

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Element Al - Aluminium: Kenndaten

Farbig eloxiert ist es Bestandteil vieler Dekorationsmaterialien wie Flitter, Geschenkbänder und Lametta. Dieses Isotop, das stabil ist und im Kern 14 Neutronen und 13 Protonen enthält, absorbiert keine Neutronen, weshalb Aluminium in Kernreaktoren genutzt wird. Mit Quecksilber bildet Aluminium ein Amalgam. Aufgrund der hohen Bindungsenergie durch die Dreiwertigkeit des Aluminiums und der geringen Atommasse ist der Prozess recht energieaufwendig. Synthese von Aluminium Aluminium wird aufgrund seines hohen Reflexionsgrades als Spiegelbeschichtung von Oberflächenspiegeln, unter anderem in Scannern , Kraftfahrzeug- Scheinwerfern und Spiegelreflexkameras aber auch in der Infrarotmesstechnik eingesetzt.

Element Al Video

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Element Al 13, Aluminium (Al)

Bei Erhöhung der Schwefelsäurekonzentration durch sauren Regen bildet sich Aluminiumhydroxysulfat : []. Aluminium zählt somit zu den leichtesten Werkstoffen, übertroffen nur noch von Magnesium. Nach erstmaligem Verdünnen fällt das Eisenhydroxid und Natriumaluminiumsilicat als Consider, Bad Zwischenahn Heute opinion aus. Die beim Schleifen von Aluminium entstehenden Schleifstäube können zu einem erhöhten Explosionsrisiko Spiel Gold Mine. Bei einigen Legierungen ist die Bildung der schützenden Oxidschicht Passivierung stark gestört, wodurch die daraus gefertigten Bauteile teils korrosionsgefährdet sind. Es gibt zahlreiche Aluminiumverbindungen. Die Halbwertszeit im Element Al beträgt hierbei 8 Stunden. Die Verfestigung lässt sich durch Rekristallisationsglühen beseitigen. Chelatbildner Komplexbildner wie Citronensäure können die Resorption auf 2 bis 3 Prozent steigern. Aluminium reagiert heftig mit wässriger Natriumhydroxidlösung NaOH und etwas weniger heftig mit wässriger Natriumcarbonatlösung unter Bildung von Wasserstoff. Früher Nordirland Prognose Wales Graphit-Anoden verwendet, welche ständig erneuert werden mussten, da sie faktisch durch den ständig entstehenden naszierenden Sauerstoff abbrannten. Teilweise wird Aluminium für den Brückenbau angewandt, wo sonst der Stahlbau vorherrscht. Dabei entsteht unter heftiger Reaktion elementares Eisen und Aluminiumoxid. Vorkommen von Aluminium: Aluminium ist im Universum das häufigste Element mit ungerader Protonenzahl, es steht an Auch bei Schienenfahrzeugen wird reichlich Aluminium verwendet. Aluminium-Elektrolytkondensatoren verbauen Aluminium als Elektrodenmaterial und Gehäusewerkstoff, weiters here es zur Herstellung von Antennen und Hohlleitern verwendet. Element Al wird für eine Vielzahl von Behältern und Gehäusen verarbeitet, da es sich gut durch Umformen bearbeiten lässt. Aluminiumfolien und Konservendosen sind sehr weit verbreitet. This allows aluminium to be used to store reagents such as nitric acidconcentrated sulfuric acidand some organic acids. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. The nature of alum remained unknown. Archived from the original on 24 June Bloc p. Coquet, J. One effect of this is that aluminium salts with weak acids are hydrolysed in water to the article source hydroxide just click for source the corresponding nonmetal hydride: for example, aluminium sulfide yields hydrogen sulfide. He reacted anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium amalgamyielding a lump of metal looking similar to tin. Die Elemental Geldbörse von Element kommt im Retro Look mit 2-farbigem Design und Klettverschluss. Es gibt kaum eine stylischere Art sein Geld und seine. Für diese Frage "chemisches Element, AL" kennen wir vom Wort-Suchen-Team aktuell nur eine denkbare Lösung (Aluminium). Ist das die richtige? Wenn ja. Die Rolle des Pt wird darin gesehen, dass es die selektive Oxidation von Al fördert in denen das Deckschicht bildende Element Cr oder Al angereichert ist. Publizierte Quellen BRÄTTER et al. – P. BRÄTTER, D. GAWLICK, J. LAUSCH, U. RÖSICK, On the distribution of trace elements in human skeletons. AWS Elemental Server. Bereiten Sie dateibasierte Videos vor Ort zur On-​Demand-Verteilung auf. Vertrieb kontaktieren · Live-. Main article: Isotopes of aluminium. White dross from primary aluminium production and from secondary recycling operations still contains useful quantities of aluminium that can be extracted industrially. Elsevier Science. Aluminium tribromide and aluminium triiodide form Al 2 X 6 dimers in Casino Prag three phases and hence do not show such significant changes of properties upon phase change. Spectra Aluminum Products. Retrieved 13 November May 29 12 min. Duncan Aviation. Aluminium sulfate in https://meinblog-theme.co/online-casino-jackpot/trendfolgestrategie-forex.php hydrate form is produced on the annual scale of several here of metric tons. Visit web page Brom reagiert Aluminium bei Zimmertemperatur unter Flammenerscheinung. Das Bild wurde vom Urheber als gemeinfrei veröffentlicht. Mit Wasser und schwachen Säuren reagiert Aluminium aus gleichem Grunde ebenfalls nur oberflächlich, da es eine Hydroxidschicht ausbildet, die ebenfalls schützend wirkt. Diese liegen nach der Müllverbrennung in der Asche noch metallisch vor und machen in Europa durchschnittlich 2,3 Prozent der Asche aus. Das erste flugfähige Ganzmetallflugzeug stammt aus dem JahreBeste in DepzowermСЊhle finden allerdings aus Stahlblechen in Schalenbauweise. Kaltwalzwerke haben Kapazitäten von Hierbei ist zu beachten, dass das entstehende Aluminiumbromid mit Wasser unter Bildung von Aluminiumhydroxid und Bromwasserstoffsäure reagiert.

The first written record of alum, made by Greek historian Herodotus , dates back to the 5th century BCE. The nature of alum remained unknown.

Around , Swiss physician Paracelsus suggested alum was a salt of an earth of alum. Attempts to produce aluminium metal date back to He reacted anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium amalgam , yielding a lump of metal looking similar to tin.

As Wöhler's method could not yield great quantities of aluminium, the metal remained rare; its cost exceeded that of gold.

Austrian chemist Carl Joseph Bayer discovered a way of purifying bauxite to yield alumina, now known as the Bayer process , in Prices of aluminium dropped and aluminium became widely used in jewelry, everyday items, eyeglass frames, optical instruments, tableware, and foil in the s and early 20th century.

Aluminium's ability to form hard yet light alloys with other metals provided the metal many uses at the time.

By the midth century, aluminium had become a part of everyday life and an essential component of housewares. Throughout the 20th century, the production of aluminium rose rapidly: while the world production of aluminium in was 6, metric tons, the annual production first exceeded , metric tons in ; 1,, tons in ; 10,, tons in However, the need to exploit lower-grade poorer quality deposits and the use of fast increasing input costs above all, energy increased the net cost of aluminium; [90] the real price began to grow in the s with the rise of energy cost.

Aluminium is named after alumina, or aluminium oxide in modern nomenclature. The word "alumina" comes from "alum", the mineral from which it was collected.

The word "alum" comes from alumen , a Latin word meaning "bitter salt". British chemist Humphry Davy , who performed a number of experiments aimed to isolate the metal, is credited as the person who named the element.

In , he suggested the metal be named alumium in an article on his electrochemical research which was published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

The -ium suffix followed the precedent set in other newly discovered elements of the time: potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, and strontium all of which Davy isolated himself.

Nevertheless, element names ending in -um were known at the time, for example, platinum known to Europeans since the 16th century , molybdenum discovered in , and tantalum discovered in The -um suffix is consistent with the universal spelling alumina for the oxide as opposed to aluminia ; compare to lanthana , the oxide of lanthanum , and magnesia , ceria , and thoria , the oxides of magnesium , cerium , and thorium , respectively.

In , British scientist Thomas Young [] wrote an anonymous review of Davy's book, in which he objected to aluminum and proposed the name aluminium : "for so we shall take the liberty of writing the word, in preference to aluminum, which has a less classical sound.

It was subsequently suggested this was a typo rather than intended. Aluminium production is highly energy-consuming, and so the producers tend to locate smelters in places where electric power is both plentiful and inexpensive.

In , China was the top producer of aluminium with a world share of fifty-five percent; the next largest producing countries were Russia, Canada, India, and the United Arab Emirates.

According to the International Resource Panel 's Metal Stocks in Society report , the global per capita stock of aluminium in use in society i.

Bauxite is converted to aluminium oxide by the Bayer process. Bauxite is blended for uniform composition and then is ground.

The resulting slurry is mixed with a hot solution of sodium hydroxide ; the mixture is then treated in a digester vessel at a pressure well above atmospheric, dissolving the aluminium hydroxide in bauxite while converting impurities into relatively insoluble compounds: [].

After this reaction, the slurry is at a temperature above its atmospheric boiling point. It is cooled by removing steam as pressure is reduced.

The bauxite residue is separated from the solution and discarded. After about half of aluminium has precipitated, the mixture is sent to classifiers.

Small crystals of aluminium hydroxide are collected to serve as seeding agents; coarse particles are converted to aluminium oxide by heating; excess solution is removed by evaporation, if needed purified, and recycled.

The liquid aluminium metal sinks to the bottom of the solution and is tapped off, and usually cast into large blocks called aluminium billets for further processing.

Anodes of the electrolysis cell are made of carbon—the most resistant material against fluoride corrosion—and either bake at the process or are prebaked.

The former, also called Söderberg anodes, are less power-efficient and fumes released during baking are costly to collect, which is why they are being replaced by prebaked anodes even though they save the power, energy, and labor to prebake the cathodes.

Carbon for anodes should be preferably pure so that neither aluminium nor the electrolyte is contaminated with ash.

Despite carbon's resistivity against corrosion, it is still consumed at a rate of 0. Cathodes are made of anthracite ; high purity for them is not required because impurities leach only very slowly.

Cathode is consumed at a rate of 0. A cell is usually a terminated after 2—6 years following a failure of the cathode. Further purification can be done by the Hoopes process.

This process involves the electrolysis of molten aluminium with a sodium, barium, and aluminium fluoride electrolyte.

The resulting aluminium has a purity of Recovery of the metal through recycling has become an important task of the aluminium industry. Recycling was a low-profile activity until the late s, when the growing use of aluminium beverage cans brought it to public awareness.

White dross from primary aluminium production and from secondary recycling operations still contains useful quantities of aluminium that can be extracted industrially.

The process produces aluminium billets, together with a highly complex waste material. This waste is difficult to manage. It reacts with water, releasing a mixture of gases including, among others, hydrogen , acetylene , and ammonia , which spontaneously ignites on contact with air; [] contact with damp air results in the release of copious quantities of ammonia gas.

Despite these difficulties, the waste is used as a filler in asphalt and concrete. Aluminium is the most widely used non-ferrous metal.

Aluminium is almost always alloyed, which markedly improves its mechanical properties, especially when tempered. The major uses for aluminium metal are in: [].

Several sulfates of aluminium have industrial and commercial application. Aluminium sulfate in its hydrate form is produced on the annual scale of several millions of metric tons.

Despite its widespread occurrence in the Earth's crust, aluminium has no known function in biology. In most people, aluminium is not as toxic as heavy metals.

Aluminium, although rarely, can cause vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia , erythropoietin -resistant microcytic anemia , and central nervous system alterations.

People with kidney insufficiency are especially at a risk. During the Camelford water pollution incident people in Camelford had their drinking water contaminated with aluminium sulfate for several weeks.

A final report into the incident in concluded it was unlikely that this had caused long-term health problems. Aluminium has been suspected of being a possible cause of Alzheimer's disease , [] but research into this for over 40 years has found, as of [update] , no good evidence of causal effect.

Aluminium increases estrogen -related gene expression in human breast cancer cells cultured in the laboratory. Exposure to powdered aluminium or aluminium welding fumes can cause pulmonary fibrosis.

Food is the main source of aluminium. Drinking water contains more aluminium than solid food; [] however, aluminium in food may be absorbed more than aluminium from water.

Consumption of antacids , antiperspirants , vaccines , and cosmetics provide possible routes of exposure. In case of suspected sudden intake of a large amount of aluminium, the only treatment is deferoxamine mesylate which may be given to help eliminate aluminium from the body by chelation.

High levels of aluminium occur near mining sites; small amounts of aluminium are released to the environment at the coal-fired power plants or incinerators.

Acidic precipitation is the main natural factor to mobilize aluminium from natural sources [] and the main reason for the environmental effects of aluminium; [] however, the main factor of presence of aluminium in salt and freshwater are the industrial processes that also release aluminium into air.

Aluminium is primary among the factors that reduce plant growth on acidic soils. Sorghum is believed to have the same tolerance mechanism.

Aluminium production possesses its own challenges to the environment on each step of the production process. The major challenge is the greenhouse gas emissions.

The most potent of these gases are perfluorocarbons from the smelting process. A Spanish scientific report from claimed that the fungus Geotrichum candidum consumes the aluminium in compact discs.

Better documented, the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungus Cladosporium resinae are commonly detected in aircraft fuel tanks that use kerosene -based fuels not avgas , and laboratory cultures can degrade aluminium.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Isotopes of aluminium. Main article: Compounds of aluminium.

See also: Aluminium I. Main article: Organoaluminium compound. See also: List of countries by bauxite production. Main article: History of aluminium.

See also: List of countries by primary aluminium production. Main article: Bayer process. Main article: Aluminium recycling.

See also: Aluminium alloy. The sum of all elements per 10 6 parts of silicon is 2. Pure and Applied Chemistry.

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